Academic Stress in Dental Students: Association with Social Support, Positive Thinking and Psychological Well-Being


Estrés académico en estudiantes de odontología: asociación con apoyo social, pensamiento positivo y bienestar psicológico

David Lunaa,†,*, Sandra García-Reyesb,‡, Erika Araceli Soria-Gonzálezb,§, Milton Avila-Rojasb,þ, Víctor Ramírez-Molinab,?, Briceida García- Hernándezb,¶, Fernando Meneses-Gonzáleza,**

aComisión Nacional de Arbitraje Médico, Dirección de Investigación, Cd. Mx., México.
bInstituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias de la Salud Unidad Milpa Alta, Cd. Mx., México.
ORCID ID:
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0427-3789
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6141-0968
§ https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6243-0394
þ https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0271-1300
? https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7954-5502
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2170-4360
** https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3833-8467

Recibido: 10-julio-2019. Aceptado: 11-septiembre-2020.

* Autor para correspondencia: David Luna. Mitla 250, Vértiz Narvarte, Cd. Mx., México, C.P. 03600. Correo electrónico: dluna@conamed.gob.mx

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22201/facmed.20075057e.2020.35.20205

La revisión por pares es responsabilidad de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. 2007-5057/© 2020 Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Medicina. Este es un artículo Open Access bajo la licencia CC BY-NC-ND (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/bync-nd/4.0/ ).

Palabras Clave

Estrés académico; formación profesional; odontología; salud mental.

Keywords

Academic stress; professional training; dentistry; mental health.


Abstract

Introduction: The Dentistry students present high levels of stress. The study of its relationship with salutogenic variables such as social support, positive thinking and psychological well-being could be useful for its intervention, enhance the beneficial function of stress and avoid its adverse effects.

Objective: To determine the level of academic stress and its sources in dentistry students, as well as to identify its association with psychological well-being, social support, and positive thinking. Detecting psychological well-being, social support and positive thinking are predictors of stress in this population.

Method: Dentistry students completed an online questionnaire survey composed of an identification card and the instruments Academic Stress Questionnaire in the University (CEAU), Positivity Scale (PS), Reduced Scale of Social, Perceived, Family and Friends Support (AFA) -R), and the Psychological Wellness Scale for Adults (BIEPS-A).

Results: 146 students participated, 104 women and 42 men. The level of stress, social support and positive thinking was moderate; while the level of psychological well-being was high. Regarding men, women showed greater stress (p < 0.01) and lower psychological well-being (p < 0.05). Stress showed a negative correlation with psychological well-being (r = –0.41) and social support (r = –0.29) but only in women. A multiple lineal regression indicate that psychological well-being (ß = –0.27) and female sex (ß = –0.26) predicts the stress level (p = 0.01). This model explains 15% of variance (R2 corrected = 0.15). Aspects that generated greater stress were the academic performance and the future perspective of his profession.

Conclusions: The identifying healthy predictors of stress in dentistry students favors the well-founded design of intervention strategies that favor the positive development of this population.